International Sports Challenge
Copyright/Publisher: Empire Software, Programmed By: Lech Balcerzak,
Release Year: 1989, Genre: Multi Events, Number Of Players: 1 or 2

Cassette: Put the game cassette Into your datacorder and ensure that it is fully re-wound. Now simply press SHIFT & RUN/STOP together.

Disk: Insert the game disk into your drive and type LOAD "*",8,1 . The game will automatically load.

These are saved to disk only if you have played the full game, otherwise each event has a replay feature where you may practise an event to improve your play. At the end of an event you will be prompted with REPLAY (Y/N). Use the keyboard to select either Y for more practise or N to continue the game.

Playing the Game
The game is a multi-sports simulation for 1-2 players with an incredible depth of gameplay. The game is played primarily using a joystick providing an alternative control method in certain events. You can choose to play from 1 to 2 players and you must enter the names of each using the keyboard followed by RETURN. When you have finished entering the last name, press .

You can also select which events you play using the joystick. Up and Down highlights the events and fire will select. When you are happy with your selection, click on OK at the bottom of the screen and the game begins.

NOTE: The marathon is only selectable if you are playing all of the events as it provides a link for the whole game.

Records of ancient Olympic games date back to nearly the 9th century B.C., but there is good reason to believe that similar events existed as much as four centuries before that. The ancient games were held every four years in Olympia, which lies on the Ells plain on the banks of the river Alpheus, Greece.

Although the stabs of this region were almost continually at war during these early days, Olympia was seen as a neutral place during the games thus giving an early start to the Olympic spirit. Contrary to the modern day Olympic spirit though, women were not permitted to attend the games either to compete or spectate. Although some women almost certainly attended in disguise, if caught they faced almost certain death.

Initially there was only one event, known as the Stage race, which was 192.27 metres long. However, other events soon followed with the two stade and the 24 stade being introduced in the 7th century B.C. In 708 B.C. the Pentathlon was introduced and consisted of discus, javelin, jumping, running and wrestling.

Numerous other events also appeared including chariot racing and boxing. As the games developed, success in the games became very important not only for the competitors but also for the towns and cities where they were born. Officially, the winners of each event were rewarded with a crown of olive leaves, but it was often the case that financial rewards were also given by the homestates of the victors.

Over the next six centuries, Olympia became famous the world over, but ultimately the success the games became its downfall. The importance of winning and the rewards to be gained led many cities to enter professional athletics and even to bribe judges and officials. The dawn of Christianity also contributed to the decline of the games as both the religious and physical background of the games were questioned.

In 393 A.D., after many turbulent years, the games were finally banned by Emperor Theodosius, and the site of Olympia eventually destroyed over the following centuries by earthquakes, floods and foreign invaders. It wasnt until the 17th & 18th centuries A.D. that the Olympic idea began to surface again. During this period great interest was shown for Ancient Greek history including the references to those ancient Olympic games.

In Britain the Cotswold Olympic games were founded in 1636 and in 1850 the much Wenlock Olympics in Shropshire were formed by Dr William Brookes. However, it is generally recognised that the true founder of the modern day games is Baron Pierre de Coubertin who publically proposed the idea in 1892. Some 1500 years after the banning of the ancient games, the modern Olympics were born.

After spending three and a half years seeking support, Baron Coubertin initiated the first modern day Olympic games, which were held in 1896 in Athens. Although the performances of the competitors was only average compared to recent times, the games were a great success. Fittingly, the Greek spectators were rewarded for their support when the marathon was won by fellow countryman Spyrldon Louis.

The second games were held in Paris in 1900, but despite being Coubertins hometown, the games were a disaster. They were held as part of the World Exhibition of that year, and suffered from bad organisation and very poor attendance with the events spread out over some five months. The games In 1904 were also a failure due to a political dispute concerning the siting of the games. The final decision by President Roosevelt to hold the games in St Louis proved to be an awful mistake.

1906 saw the only Interim or Intercalated games ever to be held, which were Intended to boost the Olympic movement after the problems of the two previous games. The event was staged in Athens and as before the Greeks showed tremendous enthusiasm and filled the marble stadium to capacity.

The Olympic games of 1908 were held in the White City Stadium, London and were by far the best yet The brand new stadium boasted an athletics track a 600 yard banked concrete cycle track and a giant 100m swimming pool. 1912 saw the first use of electronic timing and a public address system as well as the introduction of a new event, the modern pentathlon. Soccer too was given a tremendous boost when 25,000 spectators watched Britain beat Denmark 4-2 In the final.

The 1916 Olympic games were not held due to the outbreak of the 1st world war. 1924 saw the first Winter Olympics, which were held before the summer games in Chamonix, Mont Blanc. This set the president for all future Olympic games, with winter and summer events split into two separate meets.

Obviously after the outbreak of World War 2 in 1939, both the 1940 nd 1944 Games were cancelled. In 1948, Britain was given the difficult task of organising the first games after the war. Despite the fact that food and clothing were still on ration, and the economy and infrastructure ravished by 6 long years of war, the organisers were successful. Wembley stadium was chosen for the track and field events with a temporary running track laid, and the watersports events held at Henley. The event also saw the first participation of communist competitors, and the use of photo finish equipment

Since then 10 more summer games have been held in as many countries. During this time the games have seen historic world record attempts, boycotts and political disputes, drug testing and even a number of fatalities, but despite this, the Olympic spirit has always won through.

Here follows a list of the modern day Summer Olympic locations : Year, Venue
1896 Athens, Greece, The first modern day Olympics
1900 Paris, France
1904 St Louis, USA
1906 * Athens, Greece
1908 London, England
1912 Stockholm, Sweden
1916 Cancelled
1920 Antwerp, Belgium
1924 Paris, France
1928 Amsterdam, Netherlands
1932 Los Angeles, USA
1936 Berlin, Germany
1940 Cancelled
1944 Cancelled
1948 London, England
1952 Helsinki, Finland
1956 Melbourne,Australia
1960 Rome, Italy
1964 Tokyo, Japan
1968 Mexico City, Mexico
1972 Munich, W.Germany
1976 Montreal, Canada
1980 Moscow, USSR
1984 Los Angeles, USA
1988 Seoul, South Korea
1992 Barcelona, Spain
1996 Atlanta, USA
2000 The venue of this historic year is yet to be confirmed.
* Special Intercalated games.

A Historic Start?

The marathon is said to commemorate the legendary run by Pheidippides, who carried the news of victory over the Persians to Athens in the bane of Marathon 490 the Greek historian Herndotus wrote about the Battle of Marathon

Some 600 years later, no reference was made to Pheidippides's fatal run, and so it must remain a legend. It is also interesting to note that the longest recorded race to be included in this ancient Greek Olympics was 4800 metres, no where near the distance Pheidippides ran.

The marathon was first introduced as an Olympic event in 1896, and was run over a distance of 40km.

The now standard distance of 26 miles, 385 yards (42.195km), first run in the 1908 Olympic games in the United Kingdom, was the recorded distance ran from Windsor to the White City Stadium.

The Rules
The marathon is 26 miles, 385 yards or 42.195km in length.

The great majority of marathons are run on specially selected routes on public roads, with the start and finish usually situated at a place of special interest or significance. In an Olympic event, the start and finish are usually In the arena with the rest of the race made-up on public roads.

Only approved refreshments may be used during the event and only at official refreshment stations. These are sited at the 7 mile (11km) point and then at every 5 mile (5km) Interval. No additional refreshments are allowed.

Sponging points supplying water only may be situated between the refreshment stations. Distance markers, both in miles and kilometres, must be sited along the routes for the benefit of the competitors. During the race, a competitor must leave the race if ordered to do so on medical grounds.

Running the Computer Marathon
The marathon is a strategy based event Each player must select a runner (refer training schedules of all 4 runners on pages 15-18) for the race before setting the 26 miles 385 yards to glory, failure or even exhaustion.

Each player will then have the chance to adjust his/her runner by modifying variables such as speed, effort, rhythm and choice of refreshment whilst monitoring external effects such as weather conditions. Mastering this event requires a lot of forward planning: don't break too soon but don't let anyone else get too far ahead either. The marathon is the link event between all other events and after each of these the marathon is returned to and the above procedure is repeated.

Olympic Records
Men: 2:09:21 Carlos Lopes (Portugal)
Women: 2:24:52 Joan Benoit (U.S.A.)

World Records
Men: 2:6:50 Belayneh Dinsamo (Ethiopia)
Women: 2:21:6 Inorid Kristiansen (Nor)

Most Participants
New York City marathon in 1989, 24,588 participants

Marathon Sub-Screens
The first screen that appears in the marathon is a side on view of player 1's runner, with relevant statistics at the bottom of the screen. Moving the mouse or joystick pointer down to this text line brings up a list of 5 subsidiary screens available to the player.

These are selected by pointing to the desired option and pressing the left mouse button or fire on the joystick.

The Options
Selecting RUNNER from any screen other than the option screen itself will bring up the options to the player. On this screen information is displayed about the runner on the right hand side and variables that can be modified on the left.

More information on the runner appears at the bottom of the screen if the pointer is moved towards the top portion of the screen.

If the icon is selected on the option screen, then the screen returns to the main scrolling view of the race itself.

Variables that can be modified are as follows:-

Effort can be increased or decreased by clicking on the + and - boxes at either end of the gauge. This has the effect of increasing or decreasing the speed of the runner.

Speed allows for a more dynamic modification, giving the same effect of changing the runners speed. When selected the player has 15 seconds in which to waggle the Joystick/mouse left and right. The faster this is done, the faster the runner will run.

Rhythm allows the player to run more efficiently by establishing a good stride and breathing pattern. Click on the rhythm gauge and then move the mouse or joystick left and right to move the rhythm bar towards the double arrows.

When the bar reaches the arrows they will switch to the other end of the scale and the bar must be moved in the opposite direction. The speed of movement of the bar is increased as rhythm is improved so that the left/right movement must be accelerated accordingly. When the heart appears in place of the bar press fire (or the left mouse button) to establish a good breathing pattern.

Slipstream is not directly modifiable as the effect is only noticed if your runner is closely following another competitor.

This screen allows you to select your desired action at the next refreshment stop. The distance to go is displayed at the top of the screen and you may select to DO NOTHING, TAKE WATER, TAKE GLUCOSE or TAKE SPONGE simply by clicking on the relevant area which will then be highlighted. Notice that the statistics are still displayed on the right hand side of the screen to assist you.

This brings up a screen displaying the split times at every 10km break point for all six runners plus a projected finishing time for each.

The scoring for the marathon is based purely on finishing time.

The Controls
Use the mouse/joystick to select different screens or icons. When the runner is in view select the icons at the bottom of the screen to bring up other information.

Speed us adjusted by waggling the mouse/joystick left and right; the faster you waggle, the faster you run.

Rhythm is slightly more subtle; move the joystick/mouse left and right waiting each time until the arrows shift to the other end of the scale. Press the fire button when the heart appears to maintain efficient breathing.

Effort is modified simply by the icons provided and refreshment can be selected on the seperate refreshment screen.

The weather status allows you to keep an eye on such factors as wind speed, temperature and humidity.

This will enable you to select the very best course of action for the race. Note that the weather Is different every time you play the game.

The map displays an overhead view of the whole course including contours, forests, bridges, etc. All of the runners are displayed as small white dots with the currently selected runner highlighted by a small circle.


The Rules
Diving is separated into 4 separate events; men's springboard, women's springboard, men's platform and women's platform. Within these main events, a number of different dives must be completed by the competitor.

All competitors must give a list of the selected dives they wish to perform in the competition. This must be handed to the competition secretaries at least 24 hours before the start of the competition.

Preliminaries are normally held if there are more than 12 competitors, with the top twelve scorers going through to the final. For springboard events, the men must complete eleven dives and the women ten. Platform or highboard events consist of ten dives for men and eight dives for women.

Men's Platform
Ten different types of dives must be completed, 4 of which must be chosen from groups whose total degree of difficulty must not exceed 7.6 and six from other groups without a limit to the degree of difficulty.

Men's Springboard
Eleven different dives must be completed, 5 of which must be chosen from groups whose total degree of difficulty must not exceed 9.5, and 6 dives from other groups without a limit to the degree.

Women's Platform
Eight different dives must be completed, 4 of which must be chosen from groups whose total degree of difficulty must not exceed 7.6, and 4 dives from other groups without a limit to the degree of difficulty.

Women's Springboard
Ten different dives must be completed, 5 of which must be chosen from groups whose total degree of difficulty must not exceed 9.5, and 5 dives from other groups without a limit to the degree of difficulty.

There are guidelines specified for every part of a dive, from the starting position, elements and through to the entry, and the competitor will score higher marks the closer he is to these guidelines. There are usually 5 or 7 judges present to mark each dive made by each of the competitors.

Each dive is composed of three components, Starting position, the elements performed in flight and the entry. Each of these components can be performed In a number of ways, and the diagram gives examples for each.

The Starting position can be either from a (i) forward, (Il) backward or (iii) handstand position. Additionally forward takeoffs may be taken from a stationary or running start.

The elements performed In flight may be (Iv) straight, (v) with pike, or (vi) with tuck. A somersault may also be incorporated with the competitor holding a straight position for half a somersault.

Finally the entry, must be completed in either a (vii) head first position or (viii) feet first position.

A dive Is only considered completely finished when the whole body is under the water.

Points range from 0 to 10 in steps of 0.5 and must be awarded according to the following scale;

0 - Fail
0.5-2 - Unsatisfactory
2.5-4.5 - Deficient
5-6 - Satisfactory
6.5-8 - Good
8.5-10 - Very good

Secretaries record all the marks and then work out the final score for each competitor. For a five Judge panel, the highest and lowest marks are cancelled, the remainder totalled and multiplied by the degree of difficulty to give the score for the dive. For a 7 Judge competition the result is further multiplied by 0.6. This allows comparison of score to that of a 5 Judge competition.

The overall result is decided upon the competitors score in the final, the highest score wins the competition. If two divers get an equal score, a tie is declared.

Competing in the Diving Competition
Each of the diving events consists of 4 dives, the 1m springboard, the 3m board, the 5m board and the medley which is made up of one 1m dive, one 3m dive, and two 5m dives.

All 88 dive compositions have tariff ratings that indicate their degree of difficulty; although dives with a higher tariff are harder, they do enable the player to score more points if they are executed well.

Not only can players select DEMO mode for each dive to see how it should be done, but they have the option of having 0-3 practice dives, although these will reduce the scoring potential on the dive that actually counts.

The Most Medals
5 medals won by Klaus Dibiasi, Austria

High Dive Records
Men: 176'10" (53.9m) Olivier Favre, Switz.
Women: 120' 9" (36.80m) Lucy Wardle, USA

Highest Score
Greg Louganis scored 754.41 points for an 11
dive springboard event, in the 1984 Olympics

Each dive is scored in three parts; for start, elements and entry. The final score is displayed alongside a maximum acheivable score for that particular dive.

The Controls
Press fire once to start the dive. Ring A will then pulsate to indicate the power at the start of the dive. Pressfire again with the ring at maximum size to launch yourself into the air.

The inner ball, B, will move around the circle. Move the outer ball, C, moving the joystick (left=anti-clockwise, right=clockwise) to follow the path of B to complete the desired elements.

Note that you must move C to the full extent of B in each direction before moving to the next element. Select DEMO for a demonstration of the dive by the computer if you are unsure.

Equestrian Origins
The origins of horse-riding dates back to around 3000 B.C. according to Persian engravings of that date. The earliest horse Jumping competition was held in the Agricultural Hall, London in 1869.

In 1912, equestrian competitions were added to the list of Olympic events.

The Rules
Showjumping is designed to boast the skill and agility of both rider and horse, over a pre-defined course of obstacles.

There are many different kinds of fences or obstacles ranging from the simple parallel poles to elaborate stone walls, and can be grouped into 4 main categories; Straight, Multiple, Spread and Water jump.

A course must be designed so that in metres, the length from start to finish is no more than the number of fences multiplied by 60. The fences are sequentially numbered to show the jumping order and are given a red flag on the right and white flag on the left. These mark the boundaries of the fence.

A plan of the final course must then be made available to the competitors giving precise details of all aspects of the competition. This includes the layout of fences, start and finish points, any special route to be followed, the marking system to be used, course length and any time limits imposed. Competitors are also able to walk the course on foot prior to the competition.

The arena in which the competition is to be held is fully enclosed and ail entrances and exits shut whilst a horse is jumping. Marking for each competitor is dependent on the type of competition being held and the result is decided upon either the lowest number of faults, the highest number of points or the fastest time with the lowest number of faults. The jumping order is decided upon a simple draw, and when called the competitor must enter the arena already mounted and wait at the start line until he is given the starting signal.

When signalled to start the rider must then jump the fences in the correct order following any predetermined route. Penalties will be given for knocking down fences, refusals, jumping a fence out of order or deviating from the course.

There are two different methods of scoring show-lumping competitions, the most common is shown in table A. The other method is used for hunting competitions and Is shown in table B.

There are 6 types of fault which will Incur a penalty; Knocked down or dislodged obstacles, Refusals, Falls, Resistance, Running out and Deviations, and there are clear rules governing each.

Penalties for knocking down an obstacle will be Incurred if the rider or horse dislodges any part of the fence or obstacle. If an obstacle comprises of more than one element in a vertical plane, the knocking down of the top element only is penalised. In the case of an obstacle comprising of multiple parts or elements not in one vertical plane, such as a wall, the competitor Is given only one penalty no matter how many element he dislodges.

Either horse or rider can fail. A rider will be considered to have fallen if he has to remount or get back into the saddle. A horse will have fallen if its shoulder and quarters have touched the ground or, the obstacle and the ground. If a fall Is combined with any other fault, both penalties are added together.

The following faults are penalised as a disobedience;

A refusal is considered when a horse stops in front of the fence to be jumped for a period of time or steps back a single step. If the horse makes a standing jump immediately after stopping it is not considered a refusal. A competitor will be eliminated after three refusals or if he Jumps an obstacle that was knocked down in the course of a refusal before it has been rebuilt.

If a horse offers resistance by failing to go forward the competitor will incur 3 faults. If however the horse offers resistance for more than 60 seconds, falls to move from the start line after 60 seconds or takes more than 60 seconds to jump an obstacle, the horse is eliminated.

A horse will be considered to have run out If it Jumps an obstacle outside the marked boundary, or is not under the full control of the rider. The rider will be eliminated if he does not bring the horse back to Jump an obstacle.

Penalties for deviation will be incurred for the following failure to follow the plan for the course, Jumping obstacles out of order, Jumping an obstacle the wrong side of the boundary, missing a jump or jumping an obstacle not included in the course.

The competitor must rectify the deviation by returning to tile point of the course at which the error was made before he jumps the next obstacle.

Failure to do this means elimination.

Scoring Table A
This scoring table is the most commonly used for showjumping competitions.

3 faults - First disobedience.

4 faults - Knocking down an obstacle or failure at a water jump.

6 faults - Second disobedience.

8 faults - Fail by horse or rider.
3 or 6 faults plus 6, 8 or 10 seconds - Disobedience and knocking down a fence.

Elimination- Third disobedience and other offenses.

.025 Fault for each second exceeded over the time allowed.

Scoring Table B
This scoring table is mainly used for hunt competitions.

The penalties are scored in seconds which are added to the competitors time. The amount of penalty seconds used for each mistake varies according to the course length and the amount of Jumps a horse must make in each round.

For events at international level, the TIME ALLOWED tor each round Is calculated according to the length of the course and the following speed limit table;

Normal - Min. 350m/min
Hunting - Min. 350m/min (outdoor), Min. 325m/min (indoor)
Puissance - 300m/min (1st round), No limit (jump-off)
Olympic - 400m/min
Nations Cup - 400m/min (outdoor), 350m/min (indoor)
Six Bars - No limit

A competitors time for each round is timed from the moment horse and rider cross the start line to when they cross the finish line. It is recorded in seconds, tenths of seconds and hundredths of seconds by electronic timing devices.

The time limit for each round is given as twice that of the time allowed. The clock will be stopped it an obstacle is knocked down as a result oft a refusal, and will be started again once the fence has been rebuilt.

The time penalties used are as follows;

6 seconds - For knocking down an obstacle or the first part of a multiple obstacle due to a disobedience.

8 seconds - For knocking down the second part of a multiple obstacle due to a disobedience.

10 seconds - For knocking down the third or subsequent parts of a multiple obstacle due to a disobedience.

8 to 10 seconds - For knocking down a part of a multiple obstacle, and then running out or refusing the next subsequent parts without knocking them down.

After earlier rounds, competitors tie for first place, a Jump off will be held to decide the winner. It is normal for the number of fences to be reduced tor a Jump-off and some may even be altered in height or width. Puissance Jump-offs are decided by making the obstacles progressively higher, thus eliminating competitors until a winner is decided.

Competing in the Show Jumping
The four standards in the showjumping correspond to different course layouts of increasing difficulty.

The main screen shows a 3D representation of the course while a panel at the top displays a map of the course with an arrow indicating the next fence to jump. To the left of the map Is a picture of that fence together with a picture of the previous fence together with a picture of the previous fence on the right. In the main viewing area an arrow indicates the next fence to jump if it is visible or points in the direction to turn it is not.

Most Olympic Gold Medals
5 medals won by Hans Winkler, W. Germany

World Championships
Men: Won twice by Hans-Gunter Winkler of West Germany & twice by Raimondo dinzeo of Italy

Women: Won twice by Jane Tissot of France.

Highest Jump
World: 8' 1.25" (2.47m) by Huaso ridden by Capt. Alberto Larraguibel Morales of Chile. British: 7' 7.25" (2.32m) by Lastic ridden by Nick Skelton.

The scoring is related to time and the number of faults incurred in the round.

Highest Bareback Jump
7' (2.13m) by Red Flight ridden by Michael Whitaker, in Dublin on 14th November 1982.

Long Jump
27" 6.75" (8.40m) by Somethlng rldden by Andre Ferreira of South Africa in Johannesburg on 25th April 1975.

Longest Horse Ride
The longest horse ride was made by Henry Perrytrom Vidoria, Australia. He rode 14,021 miles (22,565km) around Australia in 157 days using six horses.

The Controls
Left and right pulls the reins in the required direction causing the horse to turn. Up spurs the horse on faster and down pulls the reins back to slow down. Press fire to jump.


The Rules
Swimming competitions are held for both indivldual swimmers and teams, and consist of 4 categories of stroke; butterfly, freestyle, breaststroke and backstroke. Each stroke may be raced over varying distances and at various competition levels.

Although pool lengths vary, by far the most common length is 50 metres as used for all Olympic events. The pool Is divided into eight lanes, each of 8' 2' (2.5m) wide. Each competitor Is allocated a particular lane and must stay within the lane markers throughout the race.

For International competitions eight different types of official are present and the diagram shows their positions.

The referee is responsible for the overall enforcement of the competition rules as well as settling any disputes which may occur and Inspecting the pool prior to any competitions being held.

The starter ensures that each competitor Is In the right lane before the race starts. He is also responsible for giving the competitors their starting orders.

Two stroke Judges (c) stand on opposite sides of the pool and make sure that each competitor's stroke pattern is correct tor that particular event They must report any competitor who fails to meet the correct standards.

Two Turning Judges (d) stand on opposite sides at the far end of the pool and observe the turns and relay takeovers made by each competitor.

There are a minimum of two facing Judges (e) present at the finish line and they must decide the finishing order of an event

There are two or three timekeepers (f) per lane to record the times for the competitors swimming in that lane. Times are recorded onto cards which are passed to the chief timekeeper (9) at the end of the race.

Electronic timing devices must be used for all Olympic events.

A recorder (h) sits at the side of the pool and keeps a complete record of the results for each event

Although not required for international competitions, marshals may also be used to make sure the competitors behave in a suitable manner. In all events except the backstroke, competitors start from a starting block positioned in the middle of their allocated lane on the edge of the pool. When they are given the step up onto signal, competitors must step up onto the back of the block.

They must not move from that position until they here the starter's command of "Take your marks~. They must then proceed to the front of the block and take up their starting position.

In backstroke races the competitors start in the water and line up facing the edge of the pool. They may grip the edge of the pool with their feet placed on the wall beneath the water line.

When the starter is happy that all competitors are in the correct positions and are still, he gives the starting signal. The starter may call a false start if any competitor breaks before the starting signal is given. Most competitions allow for two false starts, although within U.S. competitions a swimmer making a false start is instantly disqualified.

A competitor may be disqualified for any of the following reasons:-
* Obstructing another swimmer.
* Swimming out of lane.
* Not appearing at the starting blocks when called, or appearing late.
* Using abusive language.
* Using any swimming aids such as fins.
* Not following the directions given by an official.
* Walking on the pool floor.
* Finishing the race in the wrong lane.
* Entering the water during another race.

The Strokes

The body must be kept parallel with the water surface throughout the whole stroke. The hands must be moved forward together from the breast and then bought backwards under or on the surface of the water.

During each stroke, the head in some part must break above the surface of the water, except after a start or turn. The leg kick Is very Important, with the feet turned outwards In a backward movement. A dolphin kick is not permitted.

At the turn, the touch must be with both hands at the same time, either below, above or at the waters surface. The same applies for the finish.

In this dramatic looking stroke, the arms must be brought forward simultaneously to enter the water in front of the swimmers shoulders and then pulled backwards under the water.

The arms must at no time be moved in an alternating movement and the shoulders must be parallel to the water surface throughout the stroke. A leg kick may be used by simultaneously moving the legs up and down, but no alternating movement must be used.

Freestyle Events
In this event a competitor may use whichever stroke he chooses, and the rules regarding backstroke, butterfly and breaststroke do not apply. The competitor must touch the end of the pool when making a turn or finish, but he may do so with any part of his body.

This stroke Is performed on the back throughout the stroke. The swimmer performs an alternating circular arm movement, with the arm stroke moving In a backward direction. This stroke may be accompanied by an alternating leg kick.

Front Crawl
In this swimming stroke, the arms are alternately brought over In a forward movement and then into the water, whilst the legs are move in an alternating kick.

Medley Events
Medley competitions are held as both Individual and relay events. As an Individual event, the competitor must swim an equal distance of butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle in that order.

As a relay event each swimmer must swim one stroke for the distance. The strokes must be performed In the order of backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly and freestyle.

Fastest Swimmer
Men: 5.37mph (8.64km/h) by Tom Jager (USA) in March 1990
Women: 4.48 mph (7.21 km/h) by Yang Wenyi (China) in April 1988

Most World Records
Men: 32 by Arne Borg (Sweden)
Women: 42 by Ragnhild Hveger (Denmark)

Most Olympic Gold Medals
Men: 9 won by Mark Spitz (USA). All but one of the medal winning events was also a new world record.
Women: 6 won by Kristln Otto (W. Germany)won In Seoul 1988.

Closest Finish
On 29th July 1984 in Los Angeles, Nancy Hogshead (USA) and Carrle Steinseiter (USA) dead-heated in the women's 100m freestyle gold medal event with a time of 55.92 sec. The closest finnish not a dead-heat was won by Gunnar Larsson (Sweden) who beat Alek McKee (USA) by 2/1000th second (3mm) In the 1972 400m Individual medley.

Competing in the Swimming
The swimming competition contains 4 strokes, 3 different distances and 3 different competition levels. Breast-stroke, freestyle and butterfly can be raced over 50m, 100m or 200m. The 200m medley requires the competitor to swim 4 lengths of the pool, 50 metres each of Breast-stroke, Freestyle, Back-stroke and Butterfly. Three bar gauges and these aid the player as follows:-

The Stroke Bar on the left displays the speed and rhythm of your stroke. A heart will appear each time you need to breathe.

The Oxygen Gauge in the middle displays the constantly changing oxygen level as a blue bar.

The distance Bar on the right moves from left to right or vice versa, depending on which direction you are swimming, as your distance increases and you near the finishing line.

The computer-controlled swimmer gives you an indication of your speed and a bonus If he is beaten. Note that although you score more for beating a more competent opponent, the stroke Is harder to time exactly.

The scoring is based on time plus a bonus for beating the computer controlled swimmer.

The Controls
Press fire to start the race. Pull the joystick down to crouch and push up to dive, pulling down longer gives a more powerful dive. Once you surface, move the joystick left and right to build up a rhythm - note that each stroke has a different pace. Try to keep the stroke as long as possible without entering the shaded areas at the ends of the stroke gauge. When the block changes to a heart, press fire to breathe. Be careful not too breathe when the heart is not visible or you will get a mouthful of water!

CYCLING Background
The earliest cycle race recorded was held in Paris on 31st May 1868. The 1.24 mile (2km) race was won by Englishman Dr James Moore. Cycling events were included In the very first Olympic games.

In 1896 and the first champion was Leon Fleming winner of the 100Km race. Up until 1976 cycle track events were held outdoors, but In 1976 the first ever Olympic cycle event was held indoor.

The Rules
Whilst cycle racing combines both road and track events, we shall concentrate on track events for the purposes of this manual.

The track may be constructed either in or outdoors and usually has a hard surface. The track may also have large banked curves at either end. The track is marked with lines to Indicate handicap starts, the starting points for the numerous standard distances and the finish. A red line is also marked around the whole length of the track at 90cm from the edge. Known as the sprinters line, no overtaking is permitted inside this line if the rider ahead is inside or on the line.

The cycles must be fitted with a fixed wheel and normally all unnecessary components removed. This means that the machines have no gears and usually no brakes either. It is also common to fit smooth discs to the wheels to make them more aerodynamic.

A competitors clothing is very important and consists of a sleeved Jersey covering up to the neck and shorts which cover to just above the knees, or a one-piece cycle suit covering the same criteria A rider must also wear a helmet which is normally of aerodynamic design.

There are many different cycle track events and here follows a brief description of each:-

These races are between two or more competitors and are held over 1 or more laps of the track. The winner Is decided by his time for the last 200m of the race only, with the previous parts of the race used to gain tactical advantage.

Pursuit races are divided into individual and team events. In the Individual events two competitors start the race on opposite sides of the track and attempt to catch one another. If one competitor is unable to catch the other within the set distance, the rider with the fastest time wins. The race distances may be 3000m, 4000m, or 5000m. Team events are raced over 4000m with two teams each of 4 riders, and the winners decided on the times of the first three ridden from each team.

Australian Pursuit
Up to eight riders may compete in this event which may be raced over a fixed time or amount of laps. Any rider caught by another is eliminated.

Italian Pursuit
Two or more teams each with up to five riders start the race. As the race progresses, the leading team member from each team drops out at the end of each lap. The winning team Is then decided upon the fastest times of the remaining riders.

The competitors are positioned on the track at the handicap start markers, according to their handicap. A stationary start is made with the riders held upright and then given a push-off. Handicap races are usually not more than 1000m in length.

Point to point
This event is marked according to points rather than time or finishing position. A group of riders compete and are awarded points according to their position In the race for each lap or groups of laps. At the end of the race, the winner is the rider with the highest overall score.

Most Titles
The most Olympic gold medals is 3 won by Paul Masson (France), Francisco Verrl (Italy) and Robert Charpentier (France), The most successful Britain is Beryl Burton who's time trial won 25 British all-round championships, 72 road TT titles, 14 track pursuit titles and 12 road race titles.

Competing in the cycling
The cycling is split into pursuit and sprint events. The pursuit events are races around the track with a computer-controlled rider of a set standard starting on the opposite side of the track This opponent allows you to gauge your speed and In these events Is purely a yardstick for your own performance.

In the sprint events the computer-controlled rider is a true opponent, and beating him Is essential to gaining a high score. These races are supremely tactical with the riders playing a game of cat and mouse, waiting for the ideal moment to break for the finish. Both the 1000m and 2000m sprints save yourself for the mad dash for the line.

Fastest Speed
World: The fastest speed attained on a bicycle is 152. 283mph (245.077km/ by John Howard (USA) on 20th July 1985. The cycle was travelling behind a towed windshield.

United Kingdom: The UK record of 98.21 mph (158.05 km/h) achieved by David Le Grys over a 200 metre section of the M42 motorway. The motorway was closed to traffic during this time.

Lands End to John o' Groats
The record for covering this 847 mile(1363km) journey on a bicycle is 1 day 21 hours, 2 min and 19 seconds. It was achieved by Andy Wilkinson 29th September - 1st October 1990.

The womens record is 2 days, 6 hours, and 49 minutes by Pauline Strong.

Roller Cycle Record
The fastest speed attained cycling on rollers is 153.2mph (246. 5km/h) by Jim Baker (USA)

Greatest Distance in 1 Hour
76 miles 504 yards (122.771km) by Leon Vanderstuyft (Belgium) in 1928.

The pursuit events are scored purely on time whereas the sprints combine finishing time for the last lap with a bonus for beating the computer rider.

The Controls
Left/Right waggling modifies the speed of your cyclist and up/down moves him up and down the track or balances the bike at low speed (especially useful in the sprints).

The fire button on its own allows you to view your opponent (if not currently in view) while pressing fire and pulling down hits the brakes (only sensible in the cat and mouse stages of the sprints).

Shooting events were included in the first modern day Olympic games which may have been due to the fact that the founder of the games, Baron de Coubertin, was a notable pistol shot himself.

Throughout the course of the Olympics, the range of shooting events has varied greatly from 21 different events In 1920 to the eleven types of event currently Included. For the purposes of this manual though, we shall concentrate on Just four, Skeet Shoot, Trap Shoot, Boar or Moving Target and Rapid Fire Pistol shooting.

Olympic Shooting Events
Rapid-Fire Pistol - Current
Free Pistol - Current
Air Pistol - Current
Air Rifle - Current
Small-bore Rifle, Prone - Current
Small-bore Rifle, 3 Positions - Current
Moving Target (boar) - Current
Sport Pistol - Current
Air Pistol - Current
Air Rifle - Current
Small-bore Rifle, 3 Positions - Current
Trap Shooting - Current
Skeet Shooting - Current
Free Rifle, 3 Positions - Discontinued
Free Rifle - Discontinued
Free Rifle, Team - Discontinued
Military Rifle - Discontinued
Military Rifle, Team - Discontinued
Small-bore Rifle - Discontinued
Small-bore Rifle, Team - Discontinued
Live Pigeon Shoot - Discontinued
Clay Pigeon Shoot, Team - Discontinued
Running Deer Shoot - Discontinued
Running Deer Shoot, Team - Discontinued
Running Deer Shoot,
Single and Double Shot - Discontinued
Military Revolver - Discontinued
Duelling Pistol - Discontinued
Team Event - Discontinued



In this event competitors shoot at 5 revolving targets marked with 5 scoring zones. Each competitor has a total of 60 shots, which are fired in groups of five, one for each target.

The targets are placed in a line 75cm apart and 25m from the firing line. Initially held side-on to the competitors, each target revolves once through 90 degrees to appear face-on for a predetermined time, after which it returns back to the side-on position. The time a target remains face-on ranges from 4 to 8 seconds. The competitors must aim and shoot at each target as they appear and before they revolve back.

The firearms used for this event must be of .22 calibre and must conform to the following restrictions;
* It must weigh no more than 10609.
* Height of the barrel is no more than 40mm.
* The butt Is not elongated to provide extra support.
* No sights or optical lenses are to be used.
* The weapons must not be supported above the hand.
* The weapon must fit Into a box measuring 300mm x 150mm x 50mm.

The competitor's shooting position Is very important. He must stand without any kind of support, and hold the weapon in one hand only. Although ear protection may be used, wrist protection Is forbidden. When not shooting, the competitor must stand with the shooting hand downward at an angle of no more than 90 degrees.

When the targets begin to face, the competitor may raise his arm and fire. A competitor has 60 shots, which are divided Into two 30 shot courses. Each course combines 6 series of rounds of five shots. In each of these series, one shot should be made at each of the five targets.

Before the start of each course, a competitors may shoot 5 shots for sighting purposes.

Scoring is based on the position of each shot, the closer to the central 10-point zone, the higher the mark Shots which hit the lines marking each zone, will be awarded the score for the higher zone.

In this event competitors fire at a moving target which moves across an open area opposite the firing position, and at a constant speed. The distance from firing point to target may be 50m or 10m.

The target shows a picture of a running wild boar with a set of scoring rings painted on its shoulder. Scores range from 1 to 10 moving towards the centre. As can be seen in the diagram, walls at either end of the opening prevent the target being seen and therefore fired upon, before it reaches the opening. The time it takes the target to move across the opening varies between 5 and 2.5 seconds.

The firearms used for this event may differ, but the same weapon must be used throughout an event. From 1992 onwards, the Olympic events will be contested at a distance of 10m using air rifles.

For 50m events the trigger pull weight must be not less than 5009. For 10m events there Is no limit.

The competitor's shooting position must be standing and without support and the use of a sling Is strictly forbidden.

The competitor must assume the 'ready' position until any part of the target becomes visible. Once the target becomes visible, he may then take alm and fire. Incidentally this Is the only firearm In which telescopic sights are permitted.

A competitor Is permitted to test the range In order to set his sights and prepare his equipment. Once completed, he must call 'ready' and the target Is started Immediately.

The amount of free shots for sighting and the amount of scoring shots In an Olympic event Is as follows; 4 sighting shots, 30 shots at a slow moving target, 4 sighting shots and 30 shots at a fast moving target

This type of shooting now includes 15 different competition events, all of which follow the same basic idea of shooting at a clay disc, launched from a trap, using a shotgun.

For the purposes of this manual we shall concentrate on just 2 Olympic events; Skeet and Trap shooting.

The target or clay pigeon must be 110mm in diameter, between 2'27mm thick and weigh between 100-1109.

Depending on the type of event and the conditions, either black, white or yellow targets may be used. The colour must be chosen before the start of the competition and must remain the same throughout the event.

The trap is a mechanical device that Is able to launch the clay discs In a number of directions and angles of elevation. The traps are loaded with a large number of targets and Is then triggered by the puller, who is situated where he can see and hear the competitors. For events which use multiple traps, selector systems are used to determine which trap Is used for each pull, thus ensuring that It remains unknown to both the competitors and the puller.

The guns used may be of single barrel, side by side barrel or over and under barrel types, but may differ according to the type of event being contested.

The ammunition used consists of a cartridge no more than 70mm loaded length, and is loaded with a maximum of 289 of No:6 (Europe) or N0:7 (U.S.A.) shot.

The use of black power, Incendiary or tracer cartridges in competition Is forbidden.

The Trap - Skeet Shooting
For this event two different traps are used and a series of eight shooting stations arranged according to the diagram. The two traps are set at different heights, with the low trap on the right launching targets from a height of 1 m and the high trap on the left launching at 3.05m. Both traps are able to launch target through a preset range of elevations. The targets must pass over a central point In the range and must travel for a further 66-70 meters still In the air.

A random timer mechanism is used on which station is he shooting from. At stations 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 he will receive both double and single targets. At stations 4 and 8 which run on a parallel down the middle of the range, he will receive one target from the high trap and one target from the low trap. Double targets must be launched simultaneously and the competitor must aim at the target from the nearest trap first. There is a total of 25 targets for each stage of the competition and in all cases the competitor must call before each target is released.

Only one shot at each target IS allowed and targets must be shot before they cross the relevant boundaries. At stations 1 to 7 this means the outer boundary markers and at station 8 the target must be hit before it crosses the centre line.

Scoring is marked on the amount of dead targets the competitor gets.

A target will be considered dead when it is correctly thrown and has been visibly broken or destroyed by the competitor. If a target is released before the competitor calls and is not shot at, or the competitor is distracted or disturbed, 'no bird' is called and another target is released. If any of the competitors tie for position, the top 3 places are decided by further 25 target rounds.

Skeet Shooting Range showing the 8 shooting stations and trap positions

Trap Shoot or own-The-Line Shooting
This form of target shooting is split Into two types of event; single-rise and double-rise. For both events a single trap is used which Is able to launch targets at variable and random angles within a preset range. Five shooting stations are used and are positioned In a curve opposite the trap, as per the diagram.

For single-rise events, only one target IS launched at a time, and is set to fall within a defined area. With double-rise events, 2 separate targets are launched simultaneously and are set to fall within two different defined areas.

Shooting normally takes place in groups of 5 competitors, one at each of the shooting stations and the targets thrown when a competitor calls 'pull'.

Each firing stations receives a target until competitors then move on one station to the right and the next stage begins. There are normally five targets released for each station in a 25-target (bird) stage.

The scoring of these events depends on the number of dead targets shot. For single-rise shooting a competitor may shoot at a target twice if necessary. 3 points are awarded for a kill with the first shot, and 2 points for a kill made with the second. In a double-rise event, a competitor may only shoot once at each target, scoring 3 if he gets a kill.

'No Birds' are declared for any of the following reasons;
* both targets are 'killed' by one shot.
* a target breaks
* Only one target Is thrown
* Targets are not launched at the same time.
* The flight of one target is lrregular.
* Both barrels of the gun discharge at the same time.
* One barrel of the gun misfires, and the competitor does not fire the other.

Trap or Down-The-Line Shooting Range showing the 5 shooting stations and the trap position.

Competing in the Shooting
In the Trap Shoot and Skeet shooting events clays are fired from one or two positions for the player to shoot.

In the Trap Shoot, targets are fired singly in a random direction allowing 2 shots per clay whereas the Skeet shooting comprises single and double clays following more fixed paths with the number of shots available matching the number of clays hit.

The Boar event features a target on a cardboard board moving In front of the player who must fire 5 rounds every time It travels across the screen. The target Is progressively divided Into smaller, higher scoring areas, the closer to the centre, the higher your score will be.

In the Rapid Fire Pistol or Target event, 5 targets turn towards the player in a random order giving a brief opportunity to fire at them. This is repeated 6 times with Increasing speed, giving the player 30 shots to score a maximum of 300.

Most Olympic Medals
In 1912 Carl Townsend Osbum (U.S.A.) won 5 gold, 4 silver and 2 bronze medals.

Clay Pigeon Most World Titles:
The record tor the most world titles Is held by Susan Nattrass (Can-ada) with six won in the years 1974, 1975, 1977, 1978, 1979 and 1981.

Most Clays Shot In a Hour.
A record 8172 clays were 'killed' by Dan Carlisle (U.S.A.) at Norco, California on 20th May 1990.

Highest Score in 24 hours
The highest score in 24 hours is held by the Easingwold Rifle and Pistol Club who scored 120,242 points between 6-7 August 1983.

Scoring for the shooting is fairy self-explanotary;if you hit it, you score it. Note that in the trap shooting you score less for hitting a clay with your second shot.

The Controls
Select joystick or mouse with either the joystick/mouse and then it is a simple matter of point and fire. Left mouse button is used to fire and right mouse button used to pull the clays on the trap and skeet shooting events.

If you are using a joystick (not recommended) then pressing the fire button fires the gun and releasing it pulls the next clay.